Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Physician Reluctance to Engage in Health System Program The Factors Effecting the Unwillingness of Physicians to participate in the Family Physical Program in TehranÃ¢â¬â¢s Province Health System Abstract Introduction: The present study is an attempt to survey the reasons for the physiciansÃ¢â¬â¢ reluctance to take part in the family physical program in the Tehran Province health system. Methods: Considering this purpose, the study is an applied work carried out through a correlative method in TehranÃ¢â¬â¢s Province Health System in 2012.(IRAN) The study population was comprised of all the physicians in the Tehran Province health system. Participants were selected through census. A questionnaire was used for data gathering and the data were analyzed using SPSS16. Results: The mean point of economic stage,Ã work conditions, health, welfare, structural-organizational, and social-cultural problems in the health centers under study were less than midpoint. Additionally, a statistically significant relationship was found between these problems and the tendency of physicians to take part in the family physician program (P Conclusion: The results indicated a significant relationship between the problems of physicians and their tendency to take part in the family physician program in Tehran. Given the necessity of creating motivation among physicians to take part in the program effectively and willfully, solving the physiciansÃ¢â¬â¢ problems appears to be effective in motivating the physicians in this regard. Keywords: Family Physician, Referral System, Problems of Family Physicians, Health Centers Introduction Health is one of the principal rights and a valuable capital at every social level . Along the main objective of the national health system, which is to improve public health where the healthy citizens have capability to take part in economic and social activities , there are other tasks to be fulfilled by the health system. These tasks include raising hope for a healthy life, responding to reasonable expectations of the public, reducing social gaps (social justice) and providing financial coverage for medical services . It is essential, therefore, to design and adopt a proper model for health services to realize health objectives, maintain/improve health, and improve equal access to health services. In this regard, many have supported the idea of a health system in which all citizens regardless of their living condition and place (even those living in remote areas) have access to adequate specialized health services. Such services are provided by the facilities where experts are trained based on the available resources in the shortest feasible time and for reasonable costs as required by cultural and time constrains . In fact, family physician programs and referral systems are in line with the realization of a primary care health system that actualizes considerable potential resources towards the improvement of the health conditions of the society . The family physician program is a comprehensive health system and among the main achievements of this program are helping people to refer to the right specialist and an increase in the public satisfaction of health services . Additionally, the American Physician Academy believes that the family physician system is the best and most effective way to provide health services for patients . In spite of this, the government of the Islamic Republic of Iran, in cooperation with the Ministry of Welfare and Social Security, Ministry of Health, Treatment, Medical Education, and Health Service Insurance Org. triggered a rural health insurance programs through a referral system based on a family physician program in 2005. This program, considered as one of the main elements of health system development, was aimed to expand the health insurance coverage and to promote equal access to health diagnostic services . In addition to supplying health services required by the public, the family physician program prevents negligence of patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ right or any abuse of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s need to health services . Given that the family physician program is a nationwide program and all insurance organizations participate in this program, it is essential to survey the performance of the program regarding implementation, quality, and quantity of the services provided to insured patients. By this survey, the weakness and advantages of the program can be highlighted. Consequently, the family physician program may lead to immense changes in treatment behavior models as well as changes in consumption patterns in this field . Santos and Amado believe that the knowledge of a family physician to provide primary care services leads to a long-term relation between the family and the physician; which is an advantage of the family physician program . In addition, ranking the health services by the referral system gives the people in need access to more specialized services based on their true needs . At first, the referral visits the family physician and, if needed, the physician recommends them to a special practitioner. The special practitioner, then, checks the patients, carries out the required measures, records the measures in the patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ file, and returns the patients to the family physician . Although, the family physician program is initially aimed to improve public access to health care systems and cuts the unnecessary medical costs, there are evidences that the program is not free of weaknesses . In his study titled Ã¢â¬Å"challenges of family physicians in the world of the 1980sÃ¢â¬ Donald Rice (1980), studied the status of family physicians and challenges ahead of them in different countries and highlighted some main challenges including financial support for the graduates, salary of the physicians and the staff from community sources, and so on. After the implementation of health networks, family physicians are the next biggest reform in health systems, which promises to solve many of the problems of the health system. It is reasonable to expect a variety of economic, social, and cultural problems ahead of the program and failures to overcome. These problems threaten first level of services and the poorÃ¢â¬â¢s health. Above all, solving a problem needs developing an accurate insight to the problem. Analyzing the causes and the factors effective on high turnovers of family physicians is the first step to reach a right policy to improve health services nationwide. Methods The study is a descriptive analytical work carried out on the Tehran Province health system in 2012. Given incongruity of the districts under study and sensitivity of the issue, a census was taken in the system and all 100 physicians in the system agreed to participate. No sampling was done in this study and all the study population took part in the survey. Questionnaires were used for gathering the data. These questionnaires were divided into two sections. The first section included the demographic information of those who had took part in the survey. The second section included the questions which showed the unwillingness of the physicians towards the family physician program. The results of these questionnaires were classified into five main axes; 1- economic variables (questions 1-6); 2- work conditions, health, welfare, and educational variables (questions 7-12); 3- systematic-organizational variables (questions 13-18); 4- organizational-administrative variables (questions 19-24); and 5- social and cultural variables (questions 25-30). The questionnaire was designed based on LikertÃ¢â¬â¢s five-point scale. The validity of the questionnaires was approved by ten experts. Also, the stability was gained by the Cronbachs alpha coefficient test. The gleaned data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics in SPSS. Among descriptive statistics frequency, frequency rate, mean, and standard deviation were used. Also in order to survey the independence/dependence of the variables, Chi Square was used as inferential statistics. Results Female and male participants constituted 65% and 35% of the sample group respectively. In addition, 24% of the participants were unmarried and 76% were married. Regarding employment status, 68% had lifetime employment and 32% were employed in the program for a specific time. The average age of the participants was 34 and the youngest and oldest participants were 25 and 54 years old respectively. Moreover, 23% of the participants were at the age range of 25-35, 58% were at the age range of 35-45; and 19% were at the age range of 45-55. Work records also showed that the lowest work experience was 1 year and the highest work experience was 29 years. On average, the participants had 10 years of work experience; 30% less than 19 years, 50% between 10 to 20 years, and 20% between 20 to 30 years. Table 1. distribution and frequency rate of the response Mean point economic, work conditions, health, welfare, structural-organizational, and social-cultural problems effective on the willingness of the physicians to take part in the family physician program were below the midpoint (Table 2). Table 2. Family physician problem There was a significant negative relationship among economic, welfare, and social-cultural problems. On the other hand, there was a positive and significant relationship between work conditions, health, and structural-organization problems (Table 3). Table 3. correlation among problems of family physicians to take part in the program Discussion The family physician program has aimed to completely implement a referral system in the heath and treatment sector. Among the main advantages of the program are preventing physicians Ã¢â¬Ëconfusion and, more importantly, to improve public satisfaction from health services. This research also minimizes the waste of resources and leads to great economic savings. The early years of implementing the program have been featured with an increase of availability index in different aspects of the family physician program (human resources and preclinical services). Still, the ahead challenges are not deniable. The findings showed that there was a significant relationship between economic, work conditions, health, welfare, structural-organizational, and social-cultural problems on one hand and the physiciansÃ¢â¬â¢ willingness to participate in the family physician program on the other. This is consistent with Hosseing FahrejiÃ¢â¬â¢s study  on the family physician program in the Imam Khomeini Charity Committee. A study by Masoodi Asl  on the assessment of the satisfaction of the service takers under the Imam Khomeini Charity Committee program showed that 31.25% were satisfied with the program, 51.5% were relatively satisfied, and 10% were relatively dissatisfied; which is inconsistent with the present study. Motlagh (2009) in a study titled Ã¢â¬Å"physicianÃ¢â¬â¢s satisfactionÃ¢â¬ on the factors effective on creating dynamism in the family physician program and rural medical insurance indicates that minimum satisfaction level in the medical education universities is with financial problems . Taking into account the findings of the study and significant effect of welfare and financial problems on the physicianÃ¢â¬â¢s tendency to take part in the program, one may conclude that poor welfare facilities and accommodations for the physicians in the health and treatment network leads to high turnover rates among the physicians. The majority of the physicians only take part in the program for short and temporary terms and to only spend their obligatory service terms. Dieleman et al. also mentioned low salaries and hard work conditions as the reasons for lack of motivation in the health and treatment system . Given that a successful implementation of the family physician program needs public participation and cooperation for different sections, cultural works on all the effective actors is essential. Failure to successfully implement referral to a specialist practitioner plan, poor follow up by the family physicians, and poor public support for the program are the signs of low public participation rates in the program. The reasons of poor cooperation are lack of cultural and public informing measures regarding family physician programs and negative attitudes and distrust in family physicians. Nasrollahpour et al. highlighted resistance among family physicians and specialist practitioners against the family physician program . Professional satisfaction of the family physicians is a key factor in the health system. In addition, professional satisfaction might be related to the quality and effectiveness of the health services provided . On the other hand, probability of attracting new work forces decreases with an increase of professional dissatisfaction among family physicians and replacement applications by the physicians. Payment terms and work conditions are key factors in attracting and keeping skillful physicians . In regards to the causes of dissatisfaction among the family physicians are high workloads, being busy doing supportive works in health centers, lack of welfare, negligence of specific needs of different regions, and lack of proper cultural preparation (the public and specialist physicians are not properly trained). Ebadifardazar et al.  found that issues like low salaries, delay in payments, remote work place, long working hours, and no promising future for this national program are the causes of dissatisfaction of family physicians that increases turnover rates. Understaffed work force and high rates of turnover or replacement during the first 5 years of family physician program indicate problems of attracting and keeping general practitioners in the program. Also decreasing the number of service takers assigned to each practitioner, proving decent work conditions, providing welfare facilities to attract physicians and keeping the balance between demand and supply, clarifying health service packs, and providing required equipment and support are the effective factors in attracting and keeping the physicians . Conclusion In conclusion, the results showed that there was a significant relationship between the problems experienced by physicians and their willingness to participate in the family physician program in the health centers located in Tehran. In spite of the fact that satisfactory implementation of the program is the intention of the policy makers, solving the problems participating physicians face and increasing their willingness to participate appears to be an effective approach to improve the outcomes of the program. References Jamshid Beigi M, Mardfar N. Executive performance of family physician program and rural insurance. Tehran: Arvij; 2007. Persian. Ghoharinejh ad S. Health system decentralization on Iran University of Medical Science. Proceeding of 5th National Congress of Healthcare Administration Student, 2007 May 9-12, Iran, Tabriz; P.32. Persian. Rasoulid Nejad S. A survey of referral system in health care service system and ways to improve Isfahan Health system. [Ph.D. Dissertation]. Tehran: Islamic Azad University, Research and Science Branch; 1996. Family physicians and referral system in Islamic Republic of Iran, Ministry of Health, Treatment, and Medical Education, Health Department, Summer, 2006. Persian. Ministry of health and medical education. Illustration of health team and family physician services. First ed. Tehran: Arvij Publishers; 2006. Persian. Khayyati F, Motlagh ME, Kabir MJ, Kazemeini H. The role of family physician in case finding, referral, and insurance coverage in the rural areas. Iranian journal of public health. 2011; 40(3): 136. Amado CA, Santos SP. Challenges for performance assessment and improvement in primary health care: the case of the Portuguese health centers. Health Policy. 2009;91(1):43-56. Davoudi S. Introduction to health sector reform. 1st ed. Tehran: Asar-e-Mouaser; 2006. Persian. Ministry of Health and Medical Education. Family physician instructions, 2010. Persian. Kersnik J. An evaluation of patient satisfaction with family practice care in Slovenia. Int J Qual Health Care. 2000;12(2):143-7. Hosseini Fahreji H. Assessment of family physician performance in Yazd Imam Khomeini Charity Committee [M.A. Thesis]. Tehran: Iran University of Medical Sciences; 2004. Persian. Masoudi Asl I. A survey of family physician program from the physiciansÃ¢â¬â¢ viewpoint in Yasouj Imam Khomeini Charity Committee. [M.A. Thesis]. Tehran: Islamic Azad University; 2002. Persian. Motlagh MI, Pourshirvani N. Doctors consent of dynamic factors affecting the insurance plan and rural family physicians in Gilan University of Medical Sciences. Journal of Guilan University of Medical Sciences. 2004;19:55-48. Persian. Dieleman M, Cuong PV, Anh LV, Martineau T. Identifying factors for job motivation of rural health workers in North Viet Nam. Hum Resour Health. 2003;1(1):10. Nasrollahpour Shirvani D, Ashrafian Amiri H, Motlagh ME, Kabir MJ, Maleki MR, Shabestani Monfared A, et al. Evaluation of the function of referral system in family physician program in Northern provinces of Iran 2008. J Babol Univ Med Sci. 2010;11(6):46-52. Landeck M, Garza C. Utilization of physician health care services in Mexico by US Hispanic border residents. Health marketing quarterly. 2003;20(1):3-16. Abma J C, Chandra A, Mosher WD, Peterson LS, Piccinino LJ. Fertility, family planning, and womens health: new data from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth. Vital and health statistics. Series 23, Data from the National Survey of Family Growth. 1997;(19):1-14. Mahmoodi A, Kohan M, Azar FE, Solhi M, Rahimi E. The impact of education using Health Belief Model on awareness and attitude of male teachers regarding their participation in family planning. Journal of Jahrom University of Medical Sciences.Ã 2011:9(3):21-8. Persian. Cates W, Karim QA, El-Sadr WM, Haffner DW, Kalema-Zikusoka G, Rogo K, Averill EMD. Family planning and the millennium development goals. Science. 2014;329(5999):1603.
Monday, August 19, 2019
Tycho Brahe Tycho Brahe provided a great deal of information to the science community and will never be forgotten. Brahe had a large influence on the Scientific Revolution and its happenings. Many people in the time of Brahe believed that what is discovered through the Scientific Revolution, about the world, is the truth. Also at this time people believed that the Bible or their faith would surely out weigh reason that was brought by the Scientific Revolution. The are many things that make up Tycho Brahe the person, like his family. BraheÃ¢â¬â¢s family is of old and distinguished nobility. Members of BraheÃ¢â¬â¢s family served the king and their country, in council and on the battlefield. 1 Tycho, the first born son to Otte and Beate Bille-Brahe, in December 1546. Tycho parents named him after his grandfather. BraheÃ¢â¬â¢s childhood made also made up an important part of who he is. Brahe studied law and philosophy at the universities of Copenhagen and Leipzig. Each night after his long day of studies, Brahe would always be found looking at the stars in the night sky, before he went to bed. This some people would say, played a large role in what Brahe should do with his future. Brahe is said to be a colorful character when he is in school. "He allegedly challenged a fellow student to a duel with swords in a dispute over who was the better mathematician. Brahe's nose is partially cut off, and he was said to wear a gold and silver replacement upon which he would continually rub oil."2 After BraheÃ¢â¬â¢s wonderful education he would begin his journey to find out more about the sky and all that is in it. In 1972 Brahe discovered a supernova in the constellation Cassiopeia. "Brahe's meticulous observations showed that the supernova did not change positions with respect to the other stars (no parallax). Therefore, it was a real star, not a local object."3 This is early evidence against the immutable nature of the heavens.4 "In 1577 his studies of a bright comet showed that it traversed the spheres of the planets, and was not an atmospheric exhalation or an ill omen. Both these phenomena contributed to growing dissatisfaction with the Aristotelian belief in the perfect and unchanging nature of the celestial spheres."5 Brahe spent most of his time traveling and lecturing about his discoveries that he would make.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
How to Find A Writing Topic Problem-Solution Essays Have you ever received a problem-solution essay where you cannot think of anything to write? Although many of the forty million students in America go through this at one time or another, don't despair! There are several systematic ways to find a writing topic. Some topics take no research at all. Let's look at a few of them. First, the local newspaper may contain some interesting articles. The newspaper can be used as a utility to the writing process. Problems will present themselves in many newspaper articles. Articles will most likely contain many facts and quotations about a certain problem making the subject easily researchable in a short time. People must be careful, though, when using the newspaper. Many other people may use it as a source and you may find yourself writing about the same thing as someone else. Another solution might be to write in regard to your own past experiences that have involved problems and solutions. They may be problems you have had with your parents or siblings. A problem could be that you cannot decide on something and have to make a tough decision. Writing about a decision that you made about clothes will suffice. But in the view of someone else, the problem may seem insignificant. Both previous solutions may in some cases fail. If so, writing about not knowing what to write and how to solve that may lead to the best alternative. It may look as if the assignment was quickly jotted down due to the fact that there is no research to do, but if it is well written it can turn out to be a very good essay. When specific information is needed there are many things that could be doctored to suit the needs of the article.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
IJARAH Ã¢â¬â (Lease to Own) In mode of financing, lease is simply a transaction in which transfer of a property from one person to another person for an agreed time period on rental basis. Ijarah is an Islamic leasing contract, representing one of the most common modes of Islamic finance currently practice. Its popularity is due to strong parallel to convential leasing concept. The process of Ã¢â¬ËIjarahÃ¢â¬â¢ is very simple and easy to understand. This has been derived from the Arabic term Ã¢â¬Å"UjrÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"UjratÃ¢â¬ which means Ã¢â¬Ëconsideration' or Ã¢â¬Ëreturn' or Ã¢â¬Ëwages'.In simple words Ã¢â¬ËIjarahÃ¢â¬â¢ defines; contract of hiring, renting and leasing. This mode of financing is use in case of equipment as well as property. This mode of financing is better for both lessee and lessor. According to Islamic Shariah based rule, Ijarah is an agreement between the two parties (Lessor and Lessee. In this mode of financing; an owner (Lessor) transfers i ts usufruct to Lessee for an agreed time period on contract basis. In return, lessee obligation is to pay specific rent or rental for a fixed period. Period of lease and rental determined at the time of agreement.In Pakistan, this mode of transaction gained popularity to purchase car. Several products have been introduced by banks and institution to facilitate customers and provide car on affordable prices and rental prices. Key words 1. The Lessor (Mujjir) Ã¢â¬â The individual or organization who leases out/rents out the property or service is called the Lessor. 2. The lessee: (Mustajir) Ã¢â¬â The individual or organization who hires/takes the lease of the property or service against the consideration rent/wages/remuneration is called the lessee (Mustajir). . The Benefit (Maajur) Ã¢â¬â The benefit that is leased/rented out is called the benefit (Maajur). 4. The rent (Aj'r or Ujrat) Ã¢â¬â The consideration either in monetary terms or in quantity of goods fixed to be paid against the benefit of the goods or service is called the rent or Ujrat or Aj'r. Some important aspects of Ijarah Financing Ã¢â¬ ¢ Subject of lease should be clearly defines in the agreement with the mutually understanding of the both parties. Ã¢â¬ ¢ At the time of Ijarah transaction, asset or equipment in the ownership of the lessor. Only consumable items are permissible to lease out. Non consumable items are strictly prohibited to lease out. Example: Money, Wheat. E. g Ã¢â¬ ¢ Duration of lease must be mentioned clearly in the agreement. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Lessee acts as an Ã¢â¬ËAmeenÃ¢â¬â¢. In case of any damage to asset will be borne by the lessee. On the other hand, any other loss or harm outside the control of the lessee, lessor is liable. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Rent should be known at the time of contract. The lessor can not increase the rent unilaterally. Rent will start after the delivery of the asset. Process Flow 1.In first step customer find the bank with the request for financing and ente rs into an agreement with the bank. 2. The Bank buys an item (car or equipment) from the vendor. 3. Bank takes delivery of the car and title of ownership from the vendor. 4. The bank makes payment to vendor. 5. The bank signs the agreement of lease with the customer and transfer usufruct. 6. The customer makes periodic rental payment as per the contract. 7. According to the agreement, at the time of maturity customer can purchase the asset from the bank with the help of separate agreement.Only Difference 1. In sale transaction, title of property usually transferred to buyer. 2. But in case of Ijarah, title remains with the lessor. 3. Only the use of the property is transferred to the lessee. 4. Lessee pays rent to the lessor as per as the agreement. 5. At the time of maturity bank signed another agreement with the lessee and lessor gift the asset to the customer. After this transaction, lessee becomes the owner of the asset. This practice is known as Ã¢â¬Å" Ijarah Ã¢â¬â Wal Ã¢â ¬â Iqtina Ã¢â¬Å" Basic Elements of Ijarah AgreementAccording to Shariah, there are three general terminology used for Ijarah agreement as follows: 1. Wording of the agreement: Offer and acceptance word must be included in the agreement. 2. Contracting Parties: This includes a Lessor, the owner of the property, and a lessee, the party that benefits from the use of the property. 3. Subject matter of the contract: This includes the rent and the benefit. Rent Calculation 1. Islamic banks calculate the cost of purchasing the asset that is to be leased and intend to earn an amount equal to the rate of interest. . Agreement between the parties provides that the rental will be equal to the rate of interest or in addition to something. 3. While the rate of interest is variable, it cannot be set for the whole duration of the lease. 4. It is permissible to divide the cost price of the Asset and ownership of the Lessor to the Asset into several parts and to sell each part of ownership on pay ment of proportionate price/equity of the Lessor under a separate sale contract. Ijaraha IJARAH Ã¢â¬â (Lease to Own) In mode of financing, lease is simply a transaction in which transfer of a property from one person to another person for an agreed time period on rental basis. Ijarah is an Islamic leasing contract, representing one of the most common modes of Islamic finance currently practice. Its popularity is due to strong parallel to convential leasing concept. The process of Ã¢â¬ËIjarahÃ¢â¬â¢ is very simple and easy to understand. This has been derived from the Arabic term Ã¢â¬Å"UjrÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"UjratÃ¢â¬ which means Ã¢â¬Ëconsideration' or Ã¢â¬Ëreturn' or Ã¢â¬Ëwages'.In simple words Ã¢â¬ËIjarahÃ¢â¬â¢ defines; contract of hiring, renting and leasing. This mode of financing is use in case of equipment as well as property. This mode of financing is better for both lessee and lessor. According to Islamic Shariah based rule, Ijarah is an agreement between the two parties (Lessor and Lessee. In this mode of financing; an owner (Lessor) transfers i ts usufruct to Lessee for an agreed time period on contract basis. In return, lessee obligation is to pay specific rent or rental for a fixed period. Period of lease and rental determined at the time of agreement.In Pakistan, this mode of transaction gained popularity to purchase car. Several products have been introduced by banks and institution to facilitate customers and provide car on affordable prices and rental prices. Key words 1. The Lessor (Mujjir) Ã¢â¬â The individual or organization who leases out/rents out the property or service is called the Lessor. 2. The lessee: (Mustajir) Ã¢â¬â The individual or organization who hires/takes the lease of the property or service against the consideration rent/wages/remuneration is called the lessee (Mustajir). . The Benefit (Maajur) Ã¢â¬â The benefit that is leased/rented out is called the benefit (Maajur). 4. The rent (Aj'r or Ujrat) Ã¢â¬â The consideration either in monetary terms or in quantity of goods fixed to be paid against the benefit of the goods or service is called the rent or Ujrat or Aj'r. Some important aspects of Ijarah Financing Ã¢â¬ ¢ Subject of lease should be clearly defines in the agreement with the mutually understanding of the both parties. Ã¢â¬ ¢ At the time of Ijarah transaction, asset or equipment in the ownership of the lessor. Only consumable items are permissible to lease out. Non consumable items are strictly prohibited to lease out. Example: Money, Wheat. E. g Ã¢â¬ ¢ Duration of lease must be mentioned clearly in the agreement. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Lessee acts as an Ã¢â¬ËAmeenÃ¢â¬â¢. In case of any damage to asset will be borne by the lessee. On the other hand, any other loss or harm outside the control of the lessee, lessor is liable. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Rent should be known at the time of contract. The lessor can not increase the rent unilaterally. Rent will start after the delivery of the asset. Process Flow 1.In first step customer find the bank with the request for financing and ente rs into an agreement with the bank. 2. The Bank buys an item (car or equipment) from the vendor. 3. Bank takes delivery of the car and title of ownership from the vendor. 4. The bank makes payment to vendor. 5. The bank signs the agreement of lease with the customer and transfer usufruct. 6. The customer makes periodic rental payment as per the contract. 7. According to the agreement, at the time of maturity customer can purchase the asset from the bank with the help of separate agreement.Only Difference 1. In sale transaction, title of property usually transferred to buyer. 2. But in case of Ijarah, title remains with the lessor. 3. Only the use of the property is transferred to the lessee. 4. Lessee pays rent to the lessor as per as the agreement. 5. At the time of maturity bank signed another agreement with the lessee and lessor gift the asset to the customer. After this transaction, lessee becomes the owner of the asset. This practice is known as Ã¢â¬Å" Ijarah Ã¢â¬â Wal Ã¢â ¬â Iqtina Ã¢â¬Å" Basic Elements of Ijarah AgreementAccording to Shariah, there are three general terminology used for Ijarah agreement as follows: 1. Wording of the agreement: Offer and acceptance word must be included in the agreement. 2. Contracting Parties: This includes a Lessor, the owner of the property, and a lessee, the party that benefits from the use of the property. 3. Subject matter of the contract: This includes the rent and the benefit. Rent Calculation 1. Islamic banks calculate the cost of purchasing the asset that is to be leased and intend to earn an amount equal to the rate of interest. . Agreement between the parties provides that the rental will be equal to the rate of interest or in addition to something. 3. While the rate of interest is variable, it cannot be set for the whole duration of the lease. 4. It is permissible to divide the cost price of the Asset and ownership of the Lessor to the Asset into several parts and to sell each part of ownership on pay ment of proportionate price/equity of the Lessor under a separate sale contract.
I. Introduction 1. Albert Einstein said, Ã¢â¬Å"Learning is not a product of schooling but the lifelong attempt to acquire it. Ã¢â¬ 2. Penn Foster is one route that helps motivated independent learners acquire the knowledge and certification they need. 3. Students' lives may change due to the decision to further their education. 4. I plan to use the following method balance work, family, and Penn Foster. II. Step 1: Figure Out What Really Matters in Life 1. Spending introspective time thinking about my life is the first step to achieving a balanced life. 2. I use an exercise for figuring out what matters most,Ã¢â¬ Laura Berman Fortgang (a personal coach) tells WebMD. She has her clients take a couple days off from work to contemplate the following series of questions: 1. If my life could focus on one thing and one thing only, what would that be? 2. If I could add a second thing, what would that be? Ã¢â¬ and so on. (WebMD) 3. After the list is compiled, then the plan is to de partmentalize my life. 4. When I'm at home with the family, I will focus and concern myself with them. 5. However, when I'm working on Penn Foster, I will only be thinking about learning and completing assignments. . This will help me to spend quality time in the areas that are most important. III. Step 2: Figure Out Ã¢â¬Å"MustsÃ¢â¬ vs Ã¢â¬Å"ShouldsÃ¢â¬ 1. The next step will be to figure out the difference between Ã¢â¬Å"MustsÃ¢â¬ vs Ã¢â¬Å"Shoulds. Ã¢â¬ 2. Ã¢â¬Å"We always manage to find time for those things that we decide we must do and its the things we think we should do that get left by the way side. Ã¢â¬ (Caroline) 3. To do this, I need to take my list from Step 1 and decide which activities on the list must I do. 4. Then, I need to take activities that I would like to do and put them in the should category. 5. While I do this, I need to be careful not to put too many commitments into the must column. 6. The reason is to not overwhelm myself and over commit my time. 7. Some of my musts will be family, work, and Penn Foster. 8. Right now, everything else in my life I consider a Ã¢â¬Å"shouldÃ¢â¬ until school is finished. IV. Step 3: Take Daily Ã¢â¬Å"Time-OutsÃ¢â¬ 1. The last step to ensure that I can balance my life is to take daily Ã¢â¬Å"time-outs. Ã¢â¬ 2. Ã¢â¬Å"Take a nap, a walk, or a mini-meditation break with a few minutes of silence. Maintain daily rituals, such as teatime, meditation, prayer, exercise. Ã¢â¬ (Womensnet) 3. By doing this, I can adapt myself to my new hectic schedule. 4. I will be able to maintain my energy throughout the day. 5. Keeping daily Ã¢â¬Å"time-outsÃ¢â¬ will ensure that I keep my sanity and they will give me something to look forward to throughout the day. V. Conclusion 1. Maintaining a balance between work, life, and Penn Foster can be accomplished using these three steps. 2. The first step is to figure out what really matters in life. 3. Then, I will create a must and should list. 4. After that, I will ensure I take Ã¢â¬Å"time-outsÃ¢â¬ to give myself a routine to look forward to during my day. . By doing these three steps, I can balance it all. Works Cited Ã¢â¬Å"Easy Steps to Work-Life Balance | Grants For Women in Business | Loans and Credit for Women Business Owners | Grants For Small Business. Ã¢â¬ Grants For Women in Business | Loans and Credit for Women Business Owners | Grants For Small Business. 24 Mar. 2009 . discover, you may. Ã¢â¬Å"5 Tips for Better Wor k-Life Balance. Ã¢â¬ WebMD Ã¢â¬â Better information. Better health.. 24 Mar. 2009 . way, the, and I wouldn&. Ã¢â¬Å"How to Find the Right Work-Life Balance: 6 Steps | Caroline Middlebrook. Ã¢â¬ Caroline Middlebrook. 24 Mar. 2009 .
Friday, August 16, 2019
The internal rate of return was found to be In the range of 57-59 per cent which was much higher compared to the cost of capital (9. 5 percent) and hence highly profitable. Overall, the proposition of growing pomegranate crop was highly profitable as revealed by the financial feasibility tests. Key words : Investment pattern, cost, returns, pomegranate Introduction per cent of the total area under pomegranate in the district. Hence, Chalkier and Hurry talk was specifically selected for the study.The top villages having larger area under pomegranate cultivation were selected. The Information on area under pomegranate crop and number of pomegranate growers from the selected villages was obtained from the respective village accountants (Total). A proportionate sample of ten per cent of the population from each village was selected randomly. Thus, the total size of the sample selected for the study was 120. The average age of the ample farmers in both talk was found to be 44 years and mo re than 50% farmers depended mainly on agriculture as their primary occupation.Around 25% tot tatters in the selected talks completed their primary education were as the per cent of illiterate farmer in the selected talks ranged from 12 to 15%. So far as size of family was concerned, it was found to be 7 members in family in both talks. The average size of holding of sample farmers was 2. 30 and 2. 89 ha and the average size of the pomegranate orchards was 1. 58 and 1. 47 ha in Chalkier and Hurry talks respectively. The varieties of pomegranate grown in the study area were Ganges or Baggy type. The range of age of bearing orchards was 4 to 15 years.The expected productive life span of pomegranate orchard as estimated by the respondents was 25 years. On an average plant population per ha was 375. For analyzing the data collected during the study, tabular analysis and financial analysis were employed. The technique Material and methods of tabular analysis was employed for estimating t he investment Pomegranate cultivation is practiced throughout the district. Pattern, maintenance cost of pomegranate, pattern of labor However, the large scale litigation of pomegranate is use, yield and return structure of pomegranate etc.In order to concentrated mainly in Chalkier and Hurry talk extending know the relative profitability of investment in pomegranate on an area of 260 and 628 hectares and forming 20. 08 and 48. 42 cultivation measures of project evaluation namely. Pay Back * Part of M. Sc. (Agar. ) thesis submitted by the first author to the University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharma Ã¢â¬â 580 005, India Horticulture is a fast growing sector and expects comparatively lower requirements of water and easy adaptability to adverse soil and waste land situations.The productivity of fruits and vegetables is of vital importance as it provides higher cash income than cereals per unit of land. India is one of the leading countries in pomegranate production and more than 1. 32 lake hectare area is under cultivation presently. Out of this, nearly 94,000 hectare area is covered in Maharajah's, which produces fruits of over 1 lake metric tones worth about RSI. 400 scores. In Chitchatted district of Karakas, where the study has been conducted pomegranate is being grown on commercial scale. The area under pomegranate in the district is 1297 ha (10. 9 % of total area under pomegranate in the state). Dry land horticulture is picking up fast in the district. The important horticulture crops grown in the district are pomegranate, Saputo, Beer and Papaya. Study of the economics of pomegranate production is indispensable since there is no proper farm business data on its cost of production. The accurate figures on establishment cost, operating cost and input requirement of pomegranate orchard could be of great help to the pomegranate growers of Chitchatted district in particular.Therefore, an attempt was made to study the investment pattern in pomegranate orch ard and to compute the cost and returns in pomegranate litigation in Chitchatted district. 164 Karakas J. Agric. Sic. ,24 (2) : 2011 Period (BP), Net Present Value (NAP), Benefit Cost Ratio (BCC), and Internal Rate of Return (AIR) were computed. Results and discussion The cost of establishing a pomegranate orchard up to bearing can be broadly classified into establishment cost and maintenance cost.So, the establishment cost included not only the costs incurred in the zero years that is at the time of planting but also the costs incurred in maintaining the plants till the time of bearing that is up to three years tot planting. For establishing, pomegranate orchard investment NAS to e made on land, well, pump set, pump house, plant material, digging of pits and sprayer and these costs together constituted the material costs of establishment. These costs have to be invested during the year of establishment of the orchard and are considered as the costs incurred during zero year in the study.During next three years farmers has to maintain the orchard by applying fertilizers, manures, chemicals irrigation etc. The costs incurred by the farmers on all these items for the three years are grouped together as cost of maintenance. The total costs of establishment (Table 1) were found to be 1,90,888. 1 and 1,89,644. 33 per ha of which material costs constituted 56. 87 and 58. 15 per cent and maintenance costs 43. 13 and 41. 85 per cent in Chalkier and Hurry talk respectively. Similar results were obtained by Giuliani (1990) in his study of the pattern of investment in pomegranate orchards in Bujumbura district, Karakas.The establishment cost 24,229. 53) consisted of material cost in the initial year (85. 65) and maintenance cost (49. 35%) Upton bearing three years. The material cost included the value of land, plant material, cost of digging of pits and planting, well, pump set, pump house, and sprayer. The per hectare total establishment cost worked out to be 24, 224. 5 3 and returns per orchard was 45,429. 96. The maintenance cost (Table 2) as indicated in the results included the wages of labor as well as cost of materials utilized and fixed costs in Chalkier talk. It was observed that out of Table 1 .Investment pattern in pomegranate orchards SSL. No. Particulars total maintenance cost the major component was variable cost followed by material cost and fixed cost. Under the variable cost the labor cost formed an important cost accounting nearly 50 per cent of total maintenance cost, since the crops require Geiger amount labor involvement to prefer the important activity like loosening the soil around the trunk and formation of basin, watch and ward, pruning and training and land preparation etc. Among material cost the major component fertilizers, PC and manure.Since the pomegranate crop is responsively to nutrient and as well as in the recent year the diseases like bacterial blight and anthracnose have created lot of problem hence to control th ese diseases the farmers have been trying with different chemicals thus the expenses on these items were found to be higher. So far as fixed cost is concerned the rental value of land formed the major cost component and it is observed that because of the higher productivity of the land and crops which are higher profit fronted the farmers to go for renting of land for the production of pomegranate crops.Even for the farmer who has been entering this crop on their own land where imputed the rental value taking into consideration ongoing rental rate the cost worked out to be higher. Since the opportunity cost of land was taken into consideration for calculating the rental value of land,it was found to vary over the years. In Hurry talk, the maintenance cost (Table 3) included the wages of labor as well as cost of materials utilized and the fixed costs. It was observed that variable cost formed an important component followed by material cost and fixed cost.
Thursday, August 15, 2019
Francisco de Zurbaran, a Spanish painter was born in Fuentes de Cantos, Badajoz Province in Estremadura and baptized on Nov. 7, 1598. His male parent was a comfortable tradesman of Basque descent. In 1614, Zurbaran Ã¢â¬Ës male parent sent him to Seville to apprentice for three old ages to a second-rate painter of images, Pedro Diaz de Villanueva. Zurbaran opened a workshop in Llerena in 1617 and married a adult female older than himself. She died after holding three kids. He was married once more to a widow in 1623. During his 11 old ages in Llerena, Zurbaran Ã¢â¬Ës piousness was influenced by Spanish Quietism, which was a spiritual motion that taught inner backdown, the find of God in meekly submissive silence, and the usage of penitentiary exercisings to repress the senses and quiet the mind. Although this influence had a deep consequence on his art, it in no manner limited his artistic creative activities. The contracts for this period are so legion that he would hold been obl iged to delegate many of them to helpers. In add-on, he was transposing to Seville to put to death plants for the Dominican, Trinitarian, Mercedarian, and Franciscan monasteries. In 1629, the Seville Town Council persuaded Zurbaran to travel his workshop to their metropolis. He arrived with his married woman, kids, and eight retainers. The undermentioned twelvemonth the painters Ã¢â¬Ë Guild of St. Luke ordered him to subject to an scrutiny and he refused. The town council ended up back uping him. His frequenters continued to be largely monasteries including the Capuchins, Carthusians, and Jeronymites were added to the list. In April 1634, the painter Diego Velazquez, who was in charge of the ornaments for the new Royal Palace in Madrid, commissioned Zurbaran to put to death for the Hall of Realms two conflict scenes, which were to belong to a series that included Velazquez Ã¢â¬Ës Surrender of Breda, and 10 Labors of Hercules. Zurbaran returned to Seville in November with the hon orary rubric of Painter to the King and the happy memory that Philip IV had called him the male monarch of painters. Zurbaran was at a extremum of creativeness and felicitousness in 1639, when his married woman died. His art production declined markedly and his manner became graver. He married for the 3rd clip, in 1644, but his artistic star was falling. Missing sufficient committees at place, Zurbaran was obliged to make the bulk of his plants for South America. With four more kids born of his new matrimony, he sold Flemish landscapes and pigments and coppices to the South American market. He continued to bring forth largely for South America until 1658, when he decided to seek to alter his fortune in Madrid. His art, nevertheless, was small apprehended at that place. Zurbaran died destitute in Madrid on August 27, 1664. Zurbaran Ã¢â¬Ës work was really sophisticated with accurate pragmatism and indefinable mysticism. Zurbaran chose to be a painter of spiritual topics. His work was ever created big. Other effects are attained by the elaborate finished foregrounds which mass out mostly in visible radiation and shadiness. He was really adept in painting figures with curtain as shown in one of his works The Annunciation. He worked with oil pigments and most of his plants were spiritual scenes and portrayals. Two-thirdss of his plants were painted in the 1630 Ã¢â¬Ës and the other 3rd is about every bit divided before and after that decennary. The Annunciation was painted in 1650 with oil on canvas. It measures about 85 inches tall and about one-hundred and 24 inches broad. Ã¢â¬Å" This Annunciation falls rather late in Zurbaran Ã¢â¬Ës calling, when his simple and disconnected mold, dark to visible radiation, begins to soften and film over. His pallet becomes less blatant and more blended, while the about militaristic urgency of his earlier work is replaced by an familiarity and tenderness. The walls of the Virgin Mary Ã¢â¬Ës room literally dissolve in a inundation of cherubs bathed in visible radiation, as the angel Gabriel with great heroism and discretion announces that she is with kid Ã¢â¬ says Joseph J. Rishel. Francisco de Zurbaran has a realistic manner shown in the picture. It features a room in which an angel is seen at the left kneeling on the land before the Virgin Mary. The figure of Mary is placed between a chair and a little wooden tabular array draped with a green fabric. Mary looks as though she is s urprised to be greeted by the angel although glancing at the floor. She disregards the unfastened Bible since she has been distracted. Behind and above the two figures are cherubs resting on beds of clouds merrily staring down at Mary with eyes from Heaven. Elementss such as visible radiation, colour, and texture are used in The Annunciation. Francisco de Zubaran does non demo a beginning of visible radiation in the picture, but we can see the light get downing from heaven with the cherubs and bit by bit gets darker to where the image about looks blurry on the lower left following to the angel. Light besides emphasizes the just tegument of the Angel and Mary as they both look down towards a shady floor. It reflects the unfastened Bible hinting on the sanctity and importance of Mary. Color draws attending to of import characters and objects in the picture. The ruddy and bluish Mary wears gives us a sense she is the chief focal point of the image since they are two different colourss in temperature and really concentrated. The bright yellow used indicates a celestial felicity or spirit such as how the dove is painted. The little soft silky texture used in this picture shows Zurbaran Ã¢â¬Ës usage of pragmatism. The curtain looks about perfect compared to the remainder of the room. If the picture is looked at closely, you can see more symbolism such as a really weak xanthous visible radiation around Mary Ã¢â¬Ës caput about like a aura which signifies her sanctity. The little xanthous dove at the top of the picture besides looks down at Mary and even gives a visible radiation pointed down at her caput. The cherubs and the angel are all smiling giving the image a joyful significance. You can besides see the flowers at the bottom right giving the painting an even more sense of softness, raising, and peace. The iconography of The Annunciation is shown how Zurbaran portrays the narrative of the Angel Gabriel looking earlier Mary to denote that God has chosen her to bare a boy, Jesus, who will salvage God Ã¢â¬Ës people from their wickednesss. An anon. individual explains Ã¢â¬Å" Zurbaran besides idealizes Mary to stress her sanctity. Mary maintains a graceful airs even when she is frightened by the Angel Ã¢â¬Ës intelligence. The room is besides au naturel and suggests Mary Ã¢â¬Ës modestness. The Angel appears soft and the white colour of the angel shows the pureness of God Ã¢â¬Ës courier. Ã¢â¬ Today, The Annunciation corsets at the Philadelphia Museum of Art as Francisco de Zurbaran continues to delight many with his endowments with the elements used in such an of import spiritual event. You can state he take to paint spiritual bible narratives with his really precise manner of painting the significance, symbolism, and great item.